19th-century astronomer who designed telescopes and served within the Transit of Venus commission. He also developed the spherometer caliper. He researched at Lafayette University in Pennsylvania with the College or university of Rochester (NY condition) before shifting to NEW YORK to teach as your physician. Through the Civil Battle, he worked like a Union Military surgeon. He released his most significant scientific function, The Solar Parallax and its own Related Constants, in 1891. He was created in Ecclefechan, Scotland to Wayne Harkness and Jane Wield Harkness. He and Nobel Prize-winning chemist, Peter Agre, both kept the positioning (a hundred years aside) of chief executive from the American Association for the Advancement of Technology.