A chemist and former leader of Howard Hughes Medical Institute who found the origins of lifestyle in his use RNA. He was elected towards the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1988, twelve months after he was elected to america Country wide Academy of Sciences. He attained his Ph.D. in chemistry on the School of California, Berkeley in 1975. He and his analysis partner, Sidney Altman, gained the Nobel Award in Chemistry in 1989 because of their discovery from the catalytic properties of RNA. He wedded Carol Lynn Martinson in 1970. He and Ahmed Zewail are both Nobel Laureates in Chemistry.