Sociologist and cultural theorist whose influential functions include Hard Street to Renewal (1988), Formations of Modernity (1992), and Queries of Cultural Identification (1996). He was also a founder from the Birmingham College of Cultural Research and a regular contributor towards the leftist journal, Marxism Today. He started his university profession at Jamaica University and later went to Oxford on the Rhodes Scholarship or grant. In 1979, he started teaching sociology at Open up University. He offered as president from the English Sociological Association in the past due 1990s. He was raised in Jamaica and relocated to Britain in the 1950s. He wedded University University London history teacher, Catherine Hall. He published multiple works talking about the ideas of Karl Marx.