Portuguese neo-realist writer whose novels reveal cultural inequalities and criticize cultural structures. His best-known functions of cultural criticism consist of Esteiros and Engrenagem. He researched agriculture in Coimbra. He released his first main function, Esteiros, in 1941. He was a militant Communist. His name was also directed at the building that housed the Portuguese Communist Party’s head office. He was the boy of farmers, and he spent his years as a child in Portugal’s Porto Region. He and Angela Davis had been fellow Communists.