Leading 20th-century conductor. He was affected by Gustav Mahler. He fled to America in 1933 following the Nazis found power. He analyzed in the Hoch Conservatory in Frankfurt as well as the Stern Conservatory in Berlin. He became conductor from the German Opera in Prague upon Mahler’s suggestion. He advocated for fresh works and fresh composers, introducing the general public to ‘From the home of the Deceased’ by Leoš Janáček, ‘Erwartung’ by Arnold Schoenberg, ‘Oedipus Rex’ by Igor Stravinsky, and ‘Cardillac’ by Paul Hindemith. He wedded Jennie Gaissler in 1919, plus they had two kids together. He obtained popularity for his documenting of “Eroica,” Ludwig vehicle Beethoven’s Symphony No. 3.