Previous leader of Lebanon’s largest Christian body, the Maronite Church, who served as patriarch emeritus from 1986 to 2011. He acquired degrees in beliefs and theology from Saint Joseph’s College or university in Beirut in 1950. He backed the Taif Contract in 1989 that finished the Lebanese Civil Battle. He grew up by his parents in Beirut. He was raised towards the cardinalate by Pope John Paul II in 1994.